The set of chemical processes geared towards eliminating the sugars through the action of the enzymes contained in the fermenting agents.
Alcoholic fermentation: the process of transforming the sugars contained in the grape juice into ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide and other elements.
Malolactic fermentation: the process whereby bacteria transform malic acid into lactic acid and carbon dioxide.
Second fermentation: 1. Restarting of the fermentation of a wine with small residual sugars. 2. Bottle fermentation.